IMMUNITY AND CHAMELLE MILK,
HUMAN’S IMMUNE SYSTEM
The immune system is a complex network of cells and cellular components called molecules that normally work to defend the body and eliminate infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and other invading microbes. Most cells in the immune system are white blood cells, of which there are many types. Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell, and the two main classes of lymphocytes are T cells and B cells. T cells are critical cells of the immune system that help destroy infected cells and coordinate the overall immune response. The T cell has a molecule called T-cell receptor on its surface. This receptor interacts with molecules called MHC (major histocompatibility complex). MHC molecules are found on the surface of most other cells in the body and help T cells recognize fragments of antigen. B cells are best known for making antibodies. Other types of white blood cells include macrophages and neutrophils. Macrophages and neutrophils circulate in the blood and examine the body for foreign substances. When they find foreign substances, antigens, like bacteria, they gobble up and destroy them
CAMEL IMMUNE SYSTEM
IgM, IgG, IgA and even IgD have been detected in camel serum based on cross-reactivity with human immunoglobulins (Hamers, 1998). In 1993, Hamers-Casterman et al. all other mammals. The IgG2 and IgG3 subclasses (natural for camels) include only two heavy chains. Light chains (VL) are not present. There is only one V domain (VHH) (Riechmann & Muyldermans, 1999). VHH camels have a long loop of complementary determining region (CDR3), compensating for the absence of VL (Muyldermans et al, 2001). Conventional antibodies rarely show complete neutralizing activity against enzyme antigens. Camel IgG has complete neutralizing activity against tetanus toxin when it enters the structure of enzymes. Camel hypervariable regions have an increased repertoire of antigen binding sites (Muyldermans et al, 2001). Camel VHH domains are better suited to enzyme inhibitors than human antibody fragments (Riechmann & Muldermans, 1999), thus offering a potential for viral enzymatic neutralization (Hoelzer et al, 1998; El-Agamy, 2000). A major flaw in the development of human immunotherapy is the size of the antibodies. Larger antibodies cannot reach their target.
The medicinal properties of camel milk could also be linked to the gamma globulins and other immune components, including the immunoglobulins, present in both products. For example, half of the antibodies circulating in camel blood are made up of only two heavy chains and not light chains. Due to their reduced size, one-tenth the size of human antibodies, these antibodies can easily pass into lactating camel milk, can pass the blood-brain barrier, can be filtered in the urine and are easily absorbed by the intestine in the general circulation of consumers of camel milk and / or urine. In addition, the single antigen binding (VHH) domains of these heavy chain antibodies – also known as nanobodies – may have applications in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer and the development of biosensors. camel’s immune system and its possible benefits for human health have been put into practice by a Belgian biotechnology company (Ablynx nv, Technologiepark, 219052, Gand / Zwijnaarde, Belgium) which uses animals of the camelid family (camels and lama) as a source of targeted immune therapy for cancer and other autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease.
In addition, it is important to add that reports on the therapeutic benefits associated with the consumption of cow’s milk add credibility to the idea that camel milk would have similar benefits. Bovine milk proteins are known to serve as precursors to many biologically active peptides encrypted in major milk proteins, and these are activated by gastrointestinal digestion or food processing. Bovine milk peptides have also been shown to have antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antihypertensive and immunomodulatory properties.
With regard to the cardiovascular action of camel urine mentioned above, the identity of the human dual platelet inhibitor having actions similar to both aspirin and clopidogrel is under study, and these efforts are nearing their conclusion in our center. Although this platelet-inhibiting activity has been observed in camel urine, previous studies have identified this activity in the plasma of camels, where it is considered a natural defense mechanism against thrombotic diseases, which camels are at risk of develop due to excessive exposure to the environment. heat and dryness.
Finally, while knowledge about camels was traditionally limited to limited geographic areas, particularly in Asia, Africa and Australia, the use of camel milk as a nutrient and for its health benefits was further limited to certain Asian and African countries. Conversely, cow’s milk is consumed worldwide. However, as intercultural migration of humans increased during the 20th century, knowledge about camels and their milk began to reach countries beyond Asia and Africa. This culminated in 2013 when the European Community authorized the import of camel milk from the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
La présentation des propritétés et des avantages potentiels du lait de chamelle sur ce site est basée sur des recherches scientifiques, des tests en laboratoire et des expériences de consommateurs.
Ce n’est en aucun cas un avis médical