CHAMEL MILK COMPONENTS AND MEDICINAL PROPERTIES
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(LACTOFERRINE, LYZOZYME, LACTOPEROXYDASE, IMMUNOGLOBULINS)
Lactoferrin (LF) is a glycoprotein containing two sites each capable of binding a ferric ion (Fe3 +). This ability to capture iron partly explains its role in controlling the growth of certain pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli (Zagulki et al. 1989; Diarra et al., 2002). In terms of physical properties, camel lactoferrin like many other camel milk proteins would be more heat resistant than other species and more heat resistant than IgG. For example at 85 ° C for 10 minutes, the lactoferrin in camel’s milk only represents 37% of the initial value, against 1.2% for cow’s milk and 0% for buffalo milk under the same conditions (Elagamy, 2000 ) LF is not a specific protein in milk. It is found in most secretions (tear, saliva, uterine secretions, blood, nasal secretions, urine, amniotic fluid, seminal plasma) of mammals but it is in camel milk that it is most abundant since it is would find 30 to 100 times more than in cow’s milk.
Table 1. LF concentration range of milk. different stages of lactation in mammals (in mg per ml) (Masson and Heremans, 1971; Qian 1995)
Lactoferrin also has antiviral and antifungal properties. LF acts on viruses such as herpes, the hepatitis C virus and even on HIV (Jouan, 2002). Finally, the inhibitory effect of LF on the growth of certain pathogenic fungi has been demonstrated in vivo (Anderson, 2000). Lyzozyme is a protein naturally present in the milk of mammals where it represents a powerful antimicrobial factor. The amount of lyzozyme in camel milk is higher than in cow’s milk. The enzymatic activity is also stronger than that of the cow (Elagamy et al. 1996). Like the lactoferrin of this species, the lyzozyme of camel’s milk would be heat-resistant at 85 ° C for 10 minutes the lyzozyme of camel’s milk only represents 44% of the initial value, against 26% for cow’s milk and 18 % for buffalo milk under the same conditions (Elagamy, 2000). Peroxidases are enzymes that belong to the normal non-immune systems of antimicrobial defense in milk. This enzyme in camel’s milk is considered to be one of the most heat-resistant compared to cow’s milk (Elagamy et al. 1996). The lactoperoxidase from dromedary milk exhibits an even greater stability with respect to heat treatments, making it unsuitable as a control for pasteurization. It is, for example, strongly active in samples of pasteurized milk from the dairy in Mauritania (Sabumukama, 1997). The results of the API ZYM lactoperoxidase test of camel’s milk still show an enzymatic activity at high temperature, when the lactoperoxidase of cow’s milk has lost all activity composed of heavy and light chains. What is remarkable is that the organization of heavy chain antibodies in dromedaries differs completely from what is known in other vertebrates (Atarhouch et al. 1997). The peak of IgG in colostrum is 0.26 +/- 0.232 mg / ml. It is between 18 and 30 hours after birth (Hülsebush,, 1999.). In milk, the concentration is lower but the content listed in camel milk is 4 times higher than that of cows at 0 ° C and 6 times higher at 65 ° C. In addition, cameline IgG would be more heat-resistant: 0.048 mg / ml of IgG remains in camel’s milk at 85 ° C while it disappears in cow’s milk (Elagamy, 2000)
Lactoferrin, which is believed to be present in large quantities in camel milk, plays a recognized role in the treatment of certain cancers and its anti-tumor effects have been studied in particular in rats (Jouan, 2002). Based on these results observed in the laboratory, Chissov et al. (1995) developed a lactoferrin-based preparation for use in oropharygian areas after chemotherapy. LF is able to participate in the processes of cell proliferation and differentiation. It has also been identified as a “Colony Inhibitory” acting at the level of spinal cord cells during myelopoiesis (Linden, 1994). Cells treated with lactoferrin show a permanent cessation of all functions, including the cessation of metabolic activity of DNA precursors and RNA.
The improvement in the glycemic status in diabetics treated with camel milk is thought to be due to the presence of insulin in significant quantities (52IU / L). Insulin is normally neutralized by the curdling of the milk in the stomach under the effect of the acidity of the environment, but it seems that camel’s milk does not curdle like that of other species, insulin could largely end up intact in the intestine or it could be absorbed. In any case, it seems that the regular consumption of camel’s milk has a hypoglycemic and blood sugar-regulating action in insulin-dependent patients. (Agrawal et al .; 2003).
STIMULATING FACTORS (VITAMIN C)
The reputation of camel milk is largely due to its richness in vitamince C. Of all the mammalian milk collected for human needs, that of the camel is richer in this vitamin whose tonic and restorative role, helping to fight against fatigue and infection, is well known. There is on average 3 times more vitamin C in camel milk, compared to cow’s milk. The factors that vary the ascorbic acid content are now fairly well known (Elkhidir, 2002). Vitamin C plays a considerable biological role through its anti-oxidant properties. Recently, it has also been shown to have a positive effect on the immune response of organisms attacked by various diseases. Regardless of the season, the organs richest in vitamin C are the liver (60 mg / 100g of tissue) and especially the adrenal glands (151 mg), the poorest being the heart (only 8 mg).
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Information retrieved from:
The “health” added value of raw and fermented camel milk : the experience of Kazakhstan
KONUSPAYEVA G. 1 ., LOISEAU G. 2 , FAYE B. 3
1 . Kazakh National Al-Farabi University, 71 Al Farabi Ave, 480013 Almaty, Kazakhstan. 2.CIRAD-AMIS, Agro-Food Program TA 40/16. 73, rue Jean-François Breton 34398 Montpellier, France. 3. CIRAD-EMVT, Productions Animales TA 30 / A. Baillarguet International Campus 34398 Montpellier (France)
Nutritional value of camel milk
Nutritional values for 100g
|Calories||3% 209 KJ|
|Carbohydrates||2% 89.2 KJ|
|Fat Content||78.7 KJ|
|Proteins||5% 41.69 KJ|