Digestive problems and camel milk more details

blank

Digestive problems and camel milk more details

 


Influence of Bactrian camel milk on the intestinal microbiota

The interaction between food, disease and the gut microbiota has been studied in recent years (Dolan and Chang, 2017; Espín, 2017). Several studies have shown that certain foods can modulate the species composition and community structure of the gut microbiota due to changes in the ecological environment in the gut (eg, bile acids and pH) and that different nutrients in foods can be used selectively by different microbes (McKenzie et al., 2017). The gut microbiota can be altered, even within a day, when the diet is changed (Koropatkin et al., 2012). Meanwhile, the specific composition of the gut microbiota may be different in individuals with various diseases compared to healthy individuals (Cani et al., 2016).

Reports have indicated correlations between gut microbiota and obesity, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease and cancer; in particular, changes in the amount of certain microbial genera could induce certain diseases or provide health benefits (Cani et al., 2016; Erdman, 2016; Knip and Siljander, 2016; Miyo-shi and Chang, 2017).

Comparative studies have led us to conclude that although food contains abundant nutrients which have beneficial functional effects on human health, we cannot overlook the fact that these functional studies should not be independent of the microbiota. intestinal. Therefore, when we have studied the function of camel milk, its influence on the microbiota needs to be studied to understand its function in a holistic way.

In this research, the hypervariable V3 and V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing were used to study the effects of camel milk on the gut microbiota to provide a fundamental basis for studies functional on camel milk.

Biological activity of camel milk casein after enzymatic digestion
< / h3>

Milk is a rich source of dietary protein, made up of caseins and whey protein.

Besides their nutritional value, milk proteins play an important role in health promotion and disease prevention (Meisel, 1998, 2005). Bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins are frequent components of food additives used in the formulation of functional foods (Huth et al. 2004).

They are inactive in the protein sequence of milk, but they can be released in vivo by digestive proteases or in vitro by enzymatic hydrolysis either by digestive, microbial or plant proteases, or by fermentation using different starter cultures lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with proteolytic properties (Pescuma et al. 2011).

Bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins exhibit various biofunctionalities such as antioxidant activities, anticancer activities, blood pressure reduction (ACE), opioid activities, mineral binding, growth stimulation and antimicrobial activities (Fiat et al. 1993; Tirelli et al. 1997; Clare and Swaisgood, 2000; Meisel, 2004).

Therefore, caseins can perform different biological functions after being hydrolyzed with different proteases. According to recent publications, bioactive peptides derived from casein may reduce the risk of heart disease, diabetes and cancer (McLachlan, 2001; Rival et al. 2001; Aimutis, 2004).

Such reports are stimulating interest in functional foods, which have health-promoting properties through the preventive and therapeutic activities of casein peptides.
Bioactive peptides moderating cardiovascular disease are of particular interest because these diseases affect about a third of the adult human population.

Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, EC 3.4.15.1) is a dipeptide peptic hydrolase that plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure.
Peptides derived from whey and casein showed ACE inhibitory activities (López-Fandiño et al. 2006).

Effects of the peptide isolated on the gene expression of superoxide dismutase and catalase

Free radicals are produced in a wide range of biological and chemical systems.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) including superoxide anions, hydroxyl groups, nitric oxide groups and peroxyl groups are various forms of free radicals which are produced as byproducts of cellular respiration in the mitochondria.

Free radicals have a dual function, in which they may play a role in signaling pathways and defense responses against pathogens, but excessive free radicals can damage biomolecules such as DNA, proteins and lipids and possibly cause oxidative stress. Under normal conditions, ROS can be neutralized by enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms of the body; however, increasing the amount of ROS in the body will cause an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants, which ultimately leads to oxidative stress.

A variety of diseases such as cancer are associated with oxidative stress.

Due to the harmful effects of free radicals and oxidative stress in the body, prevention of these reactions seems necessary. The cells of the body have effective strategies to prevent DNA damage induced by free radicals.

Antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) are part of the defense mechanisms against oxidative stress and are able to inhibit ROS quickly [7]. The levels of these enzymes increase under oxidative stress conditions to avoid possible damage; however, in some cases the amount of endogenous antioxidants is not sufficient to inhibit free radicals and an external source of antioxidants is required [8]. Some synthetic antioxidant compounds such as butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole, despite their use in medicine, have harmful side effects on the body.

Therefore, research has focused on identifying and extracting antioxidant compounds from natural sources.

Peptides as natural antioxidants have certain regulatory effects including nutrient absorption, immune defense, and antioxidant properties.
Several studies have been conducted on the antioxidant capacity of protein hydrolysates or peptides extracted from natural sources such as egg yolk protein, milk kefir and soy milk kefir, casein, algae protein waste and buckwheat protein. Camel milk is a rich source of protein with suggested biological activity, including antibacterial, antiviral and antioxidant (PMID: 319434).

Previous discovery has shown that due to its antioxidant activity, camel milk can be considered a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of autism spectrum disorders (PMID: 24069051, 20175528). The aim of this study was to study the antioxidant properties of the three peptides derived from camel milk proteins and also to evaluate the expression of the SOD and CAT genes in HepG2 cells treated with the selected peptide YY-11

 

Camel milk and its unique anti-diarrheal properties

In recent years, there has been an upsurge in global interest in the healing effects of camel milk following the Internet publication by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations that human consumption of camel milk could generate a billion dollars in income. The healing properties of camel milk were first mentioned in the “Words of the Prophet Muhammad” in Surah, a section of the Quran (volume 7, book 71, number 590).
Due to demand of pasteurization, which negates most of the benefits of camel milk, there is a dearth of clinical trials on the healing effects of camel milk. The few animal studies that have been published provide evidence for its therapeutic activity. This is demonstrated in the article in this issue of IMAJ on the action of camel milk in mice inoculated with Salmonella enterica.
Among the “protective proteins” of camel milk are lysozyme, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase and peptidoglycan recognition protein. These properties have anti-diarrheal / antibacterial action as well as high titers of antibodies against rotavirus, and they have an impact on the immune system. Only human and camel milk have physiologically elevated concentrations of the enzyme NaGase (N-acetylB-glucosaminidase) which, in dairy cows, is an indication of mastitis.

Effect of camel milk supplementation in the management of gastric ulcer

Ulcer is a fatal disease that affects millions of people around the world. It is characterized by a disturbance of the mucous membrane of the alimentary canal. The basic pathophysiology of gastric ulcers results from an imbalance between certain endogenous factors such as hydrochloric acid, pepsin, reflux bile, leukotriene, reactive oxygen species (ROS), etc., and cellular protective factors such as mucus bicarbonate barrier, phospholipids, mucous membrane blood flow, cell renewal and migration, and antioxidants. Alcoholism, smoking, nutritional deficiencies and frequent ingestion of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs contribute to gastric ulcers [3]. Spicy food, coffee, and emotional stress are factors that can increase stomach acid secretion and cause pain from an existing ulcer. Despite the availability of anti-ulcer drugs, there are more and more cases of ulcer in Nigeria, possibly due to the nation’s economic situation or due to limited access to drugs, especially for locals. rural areas. In addition, most common antiulcer drugs have some side effects.

Consumption of camel milk by lactose intolerant patients

 

The lactose molecule appeared around 100,000,000 years ago. It was discovered in the 17th century 1 and synthesized in the laboratory in the 1970s, when its chemical structure was determined.

It is responsible for 50% of the calories in milk and is only found there.

10,000 years ago animals began to be domesticated; 2,500 years later, goats, sheep, cows and camels began to be milked and their milk began to be used as food.
In places like Northwestern Europe, the India, Asia and North Africa, people have developed a culture of animal husbandry.

To adapt to this new situation where being able to drink milk or not would make the difference between surviving healthy or being hungry, a genetic mutation took place with lactase becoming persistent.

This enzyme hydrolyzes lactose to glucose and galactose. Its congenital absence is rare.

Usually it decreases or disappears as the onset of the teething process continues.

Individuals may be persistent lactases, usually normodigestors, where lactase remains, or weak lactases or alactasics, usually maldigestants, where it does not exist or decreases after weaning. In the maldigestor group, made up of approximately 70% Blacks, 45% to 69% Caucasians and almost 100% Asians, 6 are those clinically intolerant to lactose who, upon ingestion, show symptoms.

The most common are diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain and prostration.

This appears to be the result of the action of colonic bacteria on unhydrolyzed lactose.

The presentation of the properties and potential benefits of camel milk on this site is based on scientific research, tests laboratory and consumer experiments.

This is in no way medical advice