Digestive issues and camel milk more details
Influence of Bactrian camel milk on the gut microbiota
Interplay among food, disease, and the gut microbiota has been studied in recent years (Dolan and Chang,2017; Espín, 2017). Several studies have shown that certain foods can modulate the species composition and community structure of the gut microbiota due to changes in the ecological environment in the gut (e.g., bile acids and pH) and that different nutrients in foods can be selectively used by different microbes (McKenzie et al., 2017). The gut microbiota can be changed, even within a day, when the diet is changed (Koropatkin et al., 2012). Meanwhile, species composition of the gut microbiota can be different in individuals with various diseases compared with healthy individuals (Cani et al., 2016).
Reports have indicated correlations between gut microbiota and obesity, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer; in particular, changes in the quantity of some microbial genera could either inducecertain diseases or provide health benefits (Cani et al., 2016; Erdman, 2016; Knip and Siljander, 2016; Miyo- shi and Chang, 2017).
Comparative studies led us to conclude that although there are abundant nutrients in foods that have beneficial functional effects on human health, we cannot neglect the fact that these functional studies should not be independent of the gut micro- biota. Therefore, when we studied the function of camel milk, its influence on microbiota should be investigated to comprehensively understand its function.
In this research, the V3 and V4 hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to investi- gate the effects of camel milk on the gut microbiota to provide a fundamental basis for functional studies on camel milk.
Biological activity of camel milk casein following enzymatic digestion
Milk is a rich source of dietary proteins, being composed of caseins and whey proteins.
Beside their nutritional values, milk proteins play an important role in promotionof health and prevention of diseases (Meisel, 1998, 2005). Milk protein-derived bioactive peptides are frequent components of food additives used for the formulation of functional foods (Huth et al. 2004).
They are inactive within the sequence of milk proteins but they can be released in vivo by digestive proteases or in vitro by enzymatic hydrolysis either by digestive, microbial, plant proteases or by fermentation using different Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) starter cultures with proteolytic properties (Pescuma et al. 2011).
The bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins display various biofunctionalities such as anti-oxidant activities, anticancer activities, reduction of blood pressure (ACE), opioid activities, mineral binding, growth stimulation and antimicrobial activities (Fiat et al. 1993; Tirelli et al. 1997; Clare & Swaisgood, 2000; Meisel, 2004).
Hence caseins may play different biological functions after being hydrolyzed with different proteases. According to recent publications casein-derived bioactive peptides may decrease the risk of heart disease, diabetes and cancer (McLachlan, 2001; Rival et al. 2001; Aimutis, 2004).
Such reports stimulate interest in the functional foods, which have health promoting properties thanks to the preventive and therapeutic activities of casein peptides.
Bioactive peptides moderating the cardiovascular diseases are of special interest since these diseases affect about one third of adult human population.
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE, EC 22.214.171.124) is a peptic dipeptide hydrolase playing an important role in regulation of blood pressure.
Both whey- and casein-derived peptides have shown ACE-inhibitory activities (López-Fandiño et al. 2006).
Effects of isolated peptide on superoxide dismutase and catalase gene expression
Free radicals are produced in a wide range of biological and chemical systems .
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) including superoxide anions, hydroxyl radicals, nitric oxide radicals, and peroxyl radicals are various forms of free radicals that are
produced as byproducts of cellular respiration in mitochondria .
Free radicals have dual functions, in which they can play a role in signaling pathways and defense responses against pathogens, but excessive free radicals can damage biomolecules such as DNA, proteins, and lipids and eventually cause oxidative stress . Under normal conditions, ROS can be neutralized by the enzymatic and nonenzymatic mechanisms in the body; however, increases in the amount of ROS in the body will lead to an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants, which finally leads to oxidative stress .
A variety of diseases such as cancers are in association with oxidative stress .
Owing to the harmful effects of free radicals and oxidative stress in the body, prevention of these reactions seems necessary. Body cells have effective strategies to prevent DNA damage induced by free radicals.
Antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) are part of defense mechanisms against oxidative stress and are able to inhibit ROS rapidly . Levels of these enzymes increase in oxidative stress conditions to prevent possible damage; however, in some cases, the amount of endogenous antioxidants is not enough to inhibit free radicals and an external source of antioxidants is required . Some synthetic antioxidant compounds such as butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole, despite their use in medicine, have adverse side effects on the body.
Therefore, researches have focused on the identification and extraction of antioxidant compounds from natural sources.
Peptides as natural antioxidants have some regulatory effects including nutrient uptake, immune defense, and antioxidant properties.
Several studies have been performed on the antioxidant capacity of protein hydrolysates or peptides extracted from natural sources such as egg-yolk protein, milk kefir and soymilk kefir, casein, algae protein waste, and buckwheat protein . Camel milk is a rich source of proteins, which is suggested to have biological activity including antibacterial, antiviral, and antioxidant activities (PMID: 319434).
A previous finding has shown that due to it antioxidant activity, camel milk can be considered as a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of autism spectrum disorder (PMID: 24069051, 20175528). The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant properties of the three peptides derived from camel milk proteins and also to evaluate the expression of SOD and CAT genes in HepG2 cells treated with the selected peptide YY-11
Camel milk and its unique anti-diarrheal properties
In the past few years there has been an upsurge of global interest in the healing effects of camel milk following the Internet posting by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations that human consumption of camel milk could generate a billion dollars of income. The healing properties of camel milk were first mentioned in the “Words of The Prophet Mohamed” in the Surah, a section of the Koran (Volume 7, Book 71, number 590).
Due to the demand for pasteurization, which negates most of the benefits of camel milk, there is a dearth of clinical trials on the healing effects of camel milk. The few animal studies that have been published provide evidence on its therapeutic activity. This is demonstrated in the article in the present issue of IMAJ on the action of camel milk in mice inoculated with Salmonella enterica.
Among the “protective proteins” in camel milk are lysozyme, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, and peptidoglycan recognition protein . These properties have anti-diarrheal/antibacterial action as well as high titers of antibodies against rotavirus, and they impact on the immune system. Only human and camel milk have physiologically high concentrations of the enzyme NaGase (N-acetylB-glucosaminidase) which in milch cows is an indication of mastitis.
Effect of camel milk supplementation in the management of gastric ulcer
Ulcer is a life-threatening disease that affects millions of people globally. It is characterized by a disruption of mucus membrane lining of alimentary canal. The basic pathophysiology of gastric ulcers results from an imbalance between some endogenous factors such as hydrochloric acid, pepsin, refluxed bile, leukotriene, reactive oxygen species (ROS) etc., and cellular protective factors such as mucus bicarbonate barrier, phospholipids, mucosal blood flow, cell renewal and migration, and antioxidants .
Alcoholism, smoking, nutritional deficiencies, and frequent ingestion of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs contribute to gastric ulcers . Spicy food, coffee, and emotional stress are factors that are able to increase the acid secretion of the stomach and causing the pain of an existing ulcer.
Despite the availability of antiulcer drugs, there are increasing cases of ulcer in Nigeria probably as a result of the economic situation of the nation or due to the limited access to drugs, particularly to the rural dwellers. In addition, most of the common antiulcer drugs possess some side effects.
Consumption of camel’s milk by patients intolerant to lactose
The lactose molecule appeared around 100,000,000 years ago. It was discovered in the 17 th century 1 and synthesized in laboratory in the 1970’s, when its chemical structure was determined.
It is responsible for 50% of milk calories and only found in it.
Animals began to be domesticated 10,000 years ago; 2,500 years later, goats, sheep, cows and camels began to be milked and their milk began to be used as food.
In places such as Northwestern Europe, India, Asia, and North Africa, people developed an animal husbandry culture.
To be adapted to this new situation, where being able to drink milk or not would make the difference between surviving with good health or being hungry, a genetic mutation took place with lactase becoming persistent.
This enzyme hydrolyzes lactose in glucose and galactose. Its congenital absence is rare.
Usually it decreases or disappears when the beginning of the teething process goes on.
Individuals can be lactase persistents, usually normodigestors, where lactase remains, or low lactasics or alactasics, usually maldigestors, where it does not exist or lowers after weaning. In the group of maldigestors, comprising around 70% of blacks, 45% to 69% of Caucasians and almost 100% of Asians, 6 are those clinically intolerant to lactose, who, when ingesting it, have symptoms.
The most frequent are diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain and prostration.
This seems to be the result of the action of colonic bacteria on lactose not hydrolysed.
The presentation of the properties and potential benefits of camel milk on this site is based on scientific research, laboratory tests and consumer experiences.
This is in no way a medical opinion